Bulldog Reproductive Conditions
Clinical signs are seen during diestrus (usually 4-8 wk after estrus) or after administration of exogenous progestins. The signs are variable and include lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and vomiting. When the cervix is open, a purulent vulvar discharge, often containing blood, is present. When the cervix is closed, there is no discharge and the large uterus may cause abdominal distention. Signs can progress rapidly to shock and death.
Physical examination reveals lethargy, dehydration, uterine enlargement, and if the cervix is patent, a sanguineous to mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Only 20% of affected animals have a fever. Shock may be present.
The leukogram of animals with pyometra is variable and may be normal; however, leukocytosis characterized by a neutrophilia with a left shift is usual. Leukopenia may be found in animals with sepsis. A mild, normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia (PCV of 28-35%) may also develop. Hyperproteinemia due to hyperglobulinemia may be found. Results of urinalysis are variable. With E coli uterine infection, isosthenuria due to endotoxin-induced impairment of renal tubular function or to insensitivity to antidiuretic hormone (or both) may develop. A glomerulonephropathy caused by immune-complex deposition may result in proteinuria. These renal lesions are potentially reversible once the pyometra is resolved.
The most common cause of infertility in bulldogs and cats is related to husbandry problems. Breeding with a proven fertile male must occur at the optimal time for the female. Infectious, anatomic, metabolic, and functional problems associated with infertility are seen less frequently.
The only confirmed infectious cause of infertility in the bitch is brucellosis. This highly contagious disease caused by Brucella canis causes abortion and infertility in bitches and infertility in males. A rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit to detect serum antibodies is commercially available. If the RSAT is negative, the bitch is presumed to be Brucella -free; if positive, the serum is treated with 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) to eliminate nonspecific antibodies, and the RSAT repeated. If the 2ME-RSAT is positive, the bitch is presumed to be infected and further tests are indicated (serology and confirmatory blood and vaginal cultures). In cats, infectious causes of infertility include toxoplasmosis, feline leukemia virus infection, feline infectious peritonitis, and feline viral rhinotracheitis. These may cause abortion, neonatal death, fetal resorption, and apparent infertility. Anatomic causes of infertility include acquired and congenital problems. Fibrosis of the oviducts or uterine horns, probably a result of inflammation after infection or trauma, leads to infertility. Diagnosis is via laparotomy with dye studies. There is no reliable treatment, although microsurgery may be attempted. Similarly, bilateral obstruction of the sperm ducts can cause azoospermia and infertility. High environmental temperature can induce either temporary or permanent azoospermia. Kennel or cattery management should allow for breeding males to remain cool during the summer. Scrotal dermatitis can have the same result. Disorders of sexual differentiation result in infertility (eg, hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphrodite). Metabolic causes of infertility, other than in severely ill individuals, are rare. Hypothyroidism has no effect on male libido or semen quality. Hypothyroid bitches may not cycle or may have increased abortion rates.
Estrous cycle abnormalities can cause infertility. Prolonged anestrus may be congenital or acquired. Some large breeds of bulldogs may not have their first estrus until they are ≥2 yr old, and some individuals and some breeds typically have only one estrous cycle each year. Congenital forms of anestrus may be due to lack of function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or ovarian dysgenesis. The diagnosis of congenital anestrus is based on the age of the animal and exclusion of all other possible causes (including chromosomal defects, endocrine disorders, and previous oophorectomy). Because cyclicity in queens is determined by photoperiod, lighting conditions should be appropriate for several months before congenital anestrus is diagnosed and exogenous hormones are administered. One reported method for estrus induction in cats is FSH at 2 mg/cat, IM, sid until signs of estrus appear (not administered for >5 days).
Acquired anestrus may result from previous oophorectomy, exogenous hormonal treatment (including glucocorticoids), profound hypothyroidism, or ovarian disease (cysts or neoplasia). Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, biochemical evaluation, ultrasonography, and laparotomy.
Prolonged estrus may be caused by ovarian cysts that produce estrogen, functional ovarian tumors, or exogenous estrogens. Exogenous hormones should be discontinued. Laparotomy with histopathology is usually indicated, as medical attempts at inducing ovulation (human chorionic gonadotropin, FSH, GnRH) are usually unrewarding. Prolonged diestrus can result from luteal cysts in the ovary. Medical manipulation with prostaglandins is usually unrewarding, and ovariectomy with histopathology indicated. Testicular neoplasia, commonly producing estrogen, usually causes infertility. Castration of the affected testis may allow the other testis to regain its ability to produce sperm, but the prognosis is guarded.
Urethral prolapse is the prolapse or protrusion of the urethral mucosal lining at the tip of the penis. It most commonly presents as a red or purple colored “doughnut” on the end of the penis. It may attract an owners attention as an accidental finding or may be discovered if bleeding from the sensitive mucosal tissue occurs.
Bleeding may be very mild to heavy.
SoCalBulldogs has bulldog puppies for sale.
SoCalBulldogs’ kennel is located in Bakersfield,
California. SoCalBulldogs has provided quality bulldog puppies to happy bulldog families all over California and in particular the Southern California areas of: Orange County, OC, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, Inland Empire, Los Angeles County, San Diego County, Santa Barbara County and Kern County as well as Fresno County.
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